Bergamot natural products eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs) by targeting mevalonate, Rho-GDI-signaling and mitochondrial metabolism

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Bioenergetics Volume 1859, Issue 9, September 2018, Pages 984-996. Marco Fiorillo, Maria Peiris-Pagès, Rosa Sanchez-Alvarez, Lucia Bartella, Leonardo Di Donna, Vincenza Dolce, Giovanni Sindona, Federica Sotgia, Anna Rita Cappello, Michael P. Lisanti

Here, we show that a 2:1 mixture of Brutieridin and Melitidin, termed “BMF”, has a statin-like properties, which blocks the action of the rate-limiting enzyme for mevalonate biosynthesis, namely HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA-reductase). Moreover, our results indicate that BMF functionally inhibits several key characteristics of CSCs. More specifically, BMF effectively i) reduced ALDH activity, ii) blocked mammosphere formation and iii) inhibited the activation of CSC-associated signalling pathways (STAT1/3, Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin) targeting Rho-GDI-signalling. In addition, BMF metabolically inhibited mitochondrial respiration (OXPHOS) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Importantly, BMF did not show the same toxic side-effects in normal fibroblasts that were observed with statins. Lastly, we show that high expression of the mRNA species encoding HMGR is associated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, providing a potential companion diagnostic for BMF-directed personalized therapy.

Inhibition of Spinal Oxidative Stress by Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Attenuates the Development of Morphine Induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia in Mice

PLoS One. 2016. Filomena Lauro, Luigino Antonio Giancotti, Sara Ilari, Concetta Dagostino, Micaela Gliozzi, Chiara Morabito, Valentina Malafoglia, William Raffaeli, Maurizio Muraca, Bianca M. Goffredo, Vincenzo Mollace, Carolina Muscoli

Citrus Bergamia Risso, commonly known as Bergamot, is a fruit whose Essential Oil and Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction have numerous medicinal properties. It is also an excellent antioxidant and in this study, for the first time, its potential effect on morphine induced tolerance in mice has been investigated. Our studies revealed that development of antinociceptive tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice is consistently associated with increased formation of superoxide, malondialdehyde and tyrosine-nitrated proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord such as the enzyme glutamine synthase. Nitration of this protein is intimately linked to inactivation of its biological function and resulting increase of glutamate levels in the spinal cord. Administration of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (5–50 mg/kg) attenuated tolerance development. This effect was accompanied by reduction of superoxide and malondialdehyde production, prevention of GS nitration, re-establishment of its activity and of glutamate levels. Our studies confirmed the main role of free radicals during the cascade of events induced by prolonged morphine treatment and the co-administration of natural derivatives antioxidant such as Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction can be an important therapeutic approach to restore opioids analgesic efficacy.

Treatment With a Flavonoid-Rich Fraction of Bergamot Juice Improved Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Periodontitis in Rats

Frontiers in Pharmacology 2018; 9: 1563. Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Ramona D’Amico, Matteo Peditto, Giacomo Oteri, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Michele Navarra

Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich fraction of Bergamot juice (BJe) in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis induced by a single intragingival injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Main Methods: Periodontitis was induced by a single intragingival injection of 1 μl LPS (10 μg/μl) derived from Salmonella typhimurium in sterile saline solution. The injection was made in the mesolateral side at the interdental papilla between the first and the second molar. Fourteen days after LPS injection, we performed radiographic analyses and then we surgically removed the gingivomucosal tissue surrounding the mandibular first molar for histological, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis.

Results: LPS significantly induced oedema, tissue damage and increased neutrophil infiltration. At molecular level, we found increased NF-κB translocation as well as raised both TNF-α and IL-1β expression, other than modulation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Moreover, the increased myeloperoxidase activity was associated with up-regulation of adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine and poly ADP-ribose displayed an intense staining in the gingivomucosal tissue. Oral administration of BJe for 14 consecutive days reduced tissue injury and several markers of gingival inflammation including nuclear NF-κB translocation, cytokines expression, myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of some adhesion molecules such as ICAM and P-selectin. BJe also decreased both nitrosative stress and PARP positive staining. Moreover, it caused down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that BJe improves LPS-induced periodontitis in rats by reducing the typical markers of inflammation, thus suggesting its potential in the treatment of periodontal diseases.

Keywords: periodontitis, Bergamot juice, Citrus bergamia, inflammation, lipopolysaccharides, periodontal diseases

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